A device that facilitates the efficient transfer of heat energy from one fluid to another. The fluids are often kept apart by solid barriers, either the walls of tubes, or the formed sheets of clam shell type heat exchangers. Typically a heat exchanger will have many tubes or clam shells assembled in either bundles or stacks connected by manifolds. One fluid flows outside the assembly whilst the other flows inside.
These terms are used interchangeably for the product of a single melting or refining furnace charge. Occasionally, if the furnace contents are cast into a number of different forms, these may be called separate casts.
Interchangeable terms for a hot finished semi-finished product from either an extrusion or piercing process. They are the feedstock for cold drawing or cold reduced tube production.
A corrosion test for evaluating the inter-granular corrosion resistance of stainless steels by boiling in refluxed 65% nitric acid for five consecutive 48-hour periods, each period starting with fresh acid.